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10IPT: Answers to Samuel and Manphen's Questions

posted Sep 13, 2011, 6:16 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Sep 13, 2011, 6:58 PM ]

Question 1 - Samuel
a) Describe 3 social and ethical issues in response to this article. (3)
Marking Criteria Marks
Provides 3 different social or ethical issues and how they relate to the article 3
Provides 2 different social or ethical issues and how they relate to the article OR provides 3 but does not refer to article 2
Provides 1 social or ethical issue OR provides 2 but does not link to article 1

Possible answers include:
  • Data accuracy - as books in the system or not disposed of or removed these books may date from many years back and the information inside may be obsolete
  • Removal of physical boundaries - the library is no longer one endless string of shelves for the user that requires a lot of physical searching. Books may now be accessed through a computer and an Automated Storage and Retrieval System
  • Changing nature of work - the way people do their research at libraries could be revolutionised with print media resources not required to be searched out. Also provides an easier task for librarians who no longer have to shelve or find books.
  • Access to data - a singular storage and retrieval terminal may provide limited access to the database of books while a regular library would allow the public to access these books without any significant waits to access shelves.It is also inaccessible by normal means once the library is closed for the night.

b) Explain how this system incorporates new technology without the digitisation of data and how this may be advantagous. - (3)

Marking Criteria Marks
Relates cause and effect, showcasing a sound understanding of how the system does this and provide an advantage 3
Briefly describes how the system incorporates technology and provide and advantage 2
Briefly describes how the system incorportaes technology OR provides an advantage 1

Sample answers:
  • The system incorporates technology without the digitisation of data by conserving already stored data in the form of print media.
  • It arranges the print media into organised rows of metal bins to form a database
  • Storage and retrieval is then able to be performed through the Automatic Storage and Retrieval System, which involves a crane and a computerised control terminal
  • Advantageous as no extra storage media such as hard drives are required
  • Saves system maintenance and cost

(c) Evaluate the use of this system as a database and identify its distinct features. (4)
Marking Criteria Marks
Correctly identifies parts of the system that define it as a database and is able to judge its effectiveness as a database 4
Identifies most parts of the system in common with a database and judges its effectiveness as a database 2-3
Identifies only some parts or does not properly judge the effectiveness of the system 1
  • Use of a database management system - the Automatic Storage and Retrieval System
  • Comparable to a flat-file database as Books are stored in rows and kept as individual records, but are also sorted into groups of similar topics such as through the Dewey decimal System
  • Fields may also be things such as the title, author, date of publish and genre
  • Queries would be used to search for and subsequently access these books
  • Access to data is done in the direct method, as opposed to sequential.
  • Reports may be compiled based on records from the system
  • Data mining may be performed by other programs based on records on books which are accessed most frequently
  • The system proves to function well as a database as it incorporates many features of the database and is even able to allow such analysis such as data mining . Storage and retrieval is sound, and the database is technically feasible (as it is already created) economically feasible (no need for new hard drives for storage, only automatic storage and retrieval system required) and operationally feasible (may be operated by anyone as t requires only basic knowledge to use)

d) Outline the conversion method that would be carried out to implement this system and justify the selection of this method. (3)
Marking criteria Marks
Outline correct conversion method (phased), how it relates to the system and its conversion and the justification of using such a method 3
Outline correct method of conversion and briefly justifies its use OR selects wrong method of conversion but justifies use of such method and how it relates to the system 2
Selects correct of conversion and briefly outlines it 1

Sample answers
  • Conversion method is phased as it introduces the new system while books are kept on shelves. Books are then gradually taken off shelves and placed into the underground storage system.
  • This method is best as it would provide a gradual introduction to the system to allow users to get the feel for the system
  • Would also give the system time to expand, or amend any flaws

Question 2 - Manphen
a) Identify and describe the type(s) of decision support system incorporated into the robot.
Marking Criteria Marks
Identifies the types of decision support system incorporated into the robot and correctly states at least 3 features and characteristics of this type of Decision support system 3
Identifies the types of decision support system incorporated into the robot and correctly states 2 or less features and characteristics of the type of Decision support system 2
Identifies the type of Decision support system incorporated into the robot 1

Sample Answers
  • An Artificial Neural Network was used by researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology’s Hasegawa Group to create the robot.
  • Features and Characteristics of the Artificial Neural network within the robot include:
    • Enables it not only to perform tasks but also to learn as it goes, integrating prior knowledge into new tasks and environments
    • Makes educated guesses and decisions based on past decisions and knowledge using the SOINN program; ability to adapt to new situations and learn from non-programmed past experiences
    • Decides what order and how long to take to fulfil a task successfully.
    • Is aware of its surroundings and  how to adapt to fulfil a task
    • May learn by going online and ask other robot show to perform a certain task, or by being taught by an overseer

b) Compare and contrast between a current decision support system and the one mentioned in the article, in terms of ANN components and expert system components.
Marking Criteria Marks
Outlines 2-3 similarities AND 2-3 differences, between the proposed DSS and the given example, with reference to specific ANN and expert system components and capabilities. 4-5
Outlines 1 similarity and 1 difference, or 2-3 similarities/differences only, between the proposed DSS and the given example, with reference to specific ANN and expert system components and capabilities. 2-3
Outlines 1 similarity or difference, between the proposed DSS and the given example, with reference to specific ANN and expert system components and capabilities. 1

Sample Answers
  • Similarities and Differences between the expert system in the Infectious blood disease diagnosis system and the Artificial Neural Network existing in above article:
    • Both contain a knowledge base, which operate differently however. The blood diagnosis system adheres strictly to the one knowledge base as it follows only one task for which it was programmed, whilst the robot in the above article contains a knowledge base for each specific task (input) with a different series of rules governing each task. In the case of the robot, more knowledge bases are continually added as it learns to perform more tasks.
    • Both contain a database of facts, though the expert system’s database is more static unless manually updated by expert knowledge ,whereas the database if facts within the robot acts as a more temporary store of input data, often containing details about the environment which may affect how the specific task is performed.
    • The database within the robot begins with some amount of data, which is perceived as the basics such as some Japanese words and phrases used to communicate results, whilst the database of the experts system in the infectious blood disease diagnosis system is seemingly the main purpose of the system. The focus on the expert system is the knowledge already obtained, while that the artificial neural network is how to learn and obtain more knowledge.
    • The expert system example uses forward chaining, where it begins with different information inputs to reach a conclusion while the robot may be given a task or result, where it must identify the intermediate steps to achieve this.
    • The expert system in the infectious blood disease diagnosis system does not learn as such but only provides support with a knowledge base that is inputted from someone of greater knowledge in the area. In contrast, the ANN in the robot allows it to accumulate knowledge like humans, via experience and error. Furthermore, network of such robots could quickly assemble a vast body of know-how from which to draw, making every robot in the network smarter.

c) Outline how each of the information processes are incorporated into the robot in an information system diagram. (Focus on Information Processes)
Mark Criteria Marks
Correctly outlines when and where at least 6 of the information processes occur within the robotic system within the article. 1 Mark for each process (Max 6 Marks)
Correctly identifies one participant and at least 3 information technologies used 1 Mark if they identify the correct participants and 3 Information technologies used
Correctly identifies at least 3 pieces of data or information within the system 1 Mark for at least 3 correct data/Information

Sample Answers
  • Environment: Tokyo Institute of Technology Robotics Testing Facility
  • Purpose: To test the ability of and make corresponding improvements to Artificial Neural Network System Applied to the robot.
  • Information Processes:
    • Collecting: The data concerning the environment of the robot, which may affect the task, is collected, including surrounding objects which may hinder or hasten the process. The task description is also collected via the use of manual input devices such as keyboards, or with a voice recognition and recording system. The results of how the robot performed are also collected.
    • Organising: Transferring the format of the task given into one which the robot can interpret, using the Artificial Neural Network, to access previous relationships and successes.
    • Analysing: The task given is broken down into individual actions which the robot performs to complete the task. The order and priority of actions are sorted in a way which allows the robot to best complete the assigned task.
    • Storing and Retrieving: The results of how the robot performed is saved within a database, as well as the addition of new tasks not yet performed. The knowledge base and data associated with the new task are accumulated with the already present information and knowledge bases to produce a learning effect.
    • Processing: When one method of approaching a tasks is not successful or miscalculated the robot accounts for this the next time and will reduce the chance of a repeated result by altering the credibility of a certain approach. This will increase the likelihood of mistakes that are not repeated.
    • Transmitting and Receiving: Knowledge associated with new tasks are transmitted and received from other robots within a network, allowing robots who do not know how to perform a task to complete it and accumulate knowledge from other devices.
    • Displaying: The result is displayed on a monitor for the operator to view, as well as by the actually completion of the task. The operator and robot communicate via audio and text displayed on the monitor.
  • Participants: Operators who input the tasks
  • Data/Information: Task- subdivided tasks, relationships between successes and failures by approaches to completing tasks, objects in the environment surrounding the robot, whether the task was successfully completed or not.
  • Information Technology: Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network (SOINN) hardware, various robotic infrastructure, computer monitor and connective wiring, databases, robotic network connections, voice recognition system, optical lense/camera