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Checkers & US Law: Sample answers

posted Sep 6, 2011, 6:28 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Sep 6, 2011, 6:33 PM ]

Checkers
Question One
Part AMarks
Correctly identifies the type of processing that was used in Chinook and argues for the type of processing used.2
Correctly does ONE of the following: identifies the type of processing or argues for the type of processing used1

Sample Answer
Chinook employed parallel processing. Parallel processing was necessary in order to examine and evaluate the large number of positions
(50 billion billion) within the 18 and a half years. If parallel processing had not been used, this would have taken a very long time.

Part BMarks
Identifies the type of decision support system used by Chinook and how this works. Describes the use of at least ONE technique in decision support systems used by Chinook.3
Identifies the type of decision support system used by Chinook and how this works.

OR

Identifies the type of decision support system used by Chinook. Describes the use of at least ONE technique in decision support systems used by Chinook.
2
Identifies the type of decision support system used by Chinook.1

Sufficient Answer
Chinook uses an artificial neural network decision support system, where neurons are the individual checker positions. Chinook works by analysing each position and trying different moves through heuristics. Heuristics are rules of thumb pre-programmed by experts that can be used as a guide and best-guess in an unstructured situation. Following each trial, Chinook evaluates the result and strengthens connections between neurons (moves between positions) if the move was evaluated as beneficial. Thus, it learned from its mistakes.

Best Answer
Identical to sufficient answer, but stating that:
When Chinook was first gaining knowledge about Checkers, it was a combination of an artificial neural network that tried moves, evaluated them and learned from the result and an expert system where experts programmed heuristics (rules of thumb) to help Chinook decide which moves to try in a given position.

Part CMarks
Each of the following components should be present in the answer:
Provides a brief overview of the method that was used to attain the ‘perfect’ decision support system used by Chinook.1
Provides at least TWO advantages for this method2 (1 each)
Provides at least TWO disadvantages of this method2 (1 each)
Gives a justified judgement (using advantages/disadvantages) as to whether or not the method used was effective and appropriate.1
Total6

Sample Answer
Brief overview:
Chinook was implemented using an artificial neural network decision support system, which in turn employed an expert system of expert pre-programmed heuristics to assist in deciding what moves to make at a given position. It learned which moves are best in a given situation and stored this information. The many positions were parallel processed across up to 50 machines to make the process as quick as possible.

Advantages:
  • Covers all possibilities/positions
  • Fast (due to parallel processing)
  • Narrows choices (search space) by use of heuristics, thus reducing the amount of time required
  • Uses previous knowledge to make the current decision; learns (rather than naively making the same mistake over and over again)
Disadvantages:
  • Time is double edged; is 18½ years too long to solve checkers?
  • Large machinery required to continually keep the search going
  • High cost (electricity + machinery)
  • Requires constant tweaking
Sample Judgement
Affirmative:
I believe that the method used to obtain the perfect decision support system in the form of Chinook was highly effective due to its wide coverage of all possible positions and the speed at which the answer was obtained due to parallel processing. [other advantages can be substituted]

Negative:
I believe that the method used to obtain the perfect decision support system in the form of Chinook was not appropriate. This is due to the large amount of machinery (50 machines) required to continually be running at the same time to keep the search going at a quick rate. This incurrs large costs for power and for the machinery itself. Furthermore, the search required constant tweaking by experts in order to find the best moves in the shortest possible time.

Part DMarks
Each of the following should be present:
Provides TWO advantages for solving checkers, with reference to issues2 (1 each)
Provides TWO disadvantages for solving checkers, with reference to issues2 (1 each)

Sample Answer
Advantages:
  • Humans can use this as a reference to play against as it is a perfect program. This improves data accuracy
  • May provide as a base for work in solving similar problems (eg chess), may change the way experts in other field view things (Changing nature of work)
Consult if any different

Disadvantages:
  • Changes the nature of work (jobs): checkers tutors are potentially out of a job
  • Spoils the fun of the game (social issue)
Consult if any different

US Law on Streaming
CriteriaMarks
Question 1: Total3
Identifies at least three (3) distinct methods of redistributing copyrighted digital multimedia, or assist in redistributing copyrighted digital multimedia3
Identifies two (2) distinct methods of redistributing copyrighted digital multimedia,  or assist in redistributing copyrighted digital multimedia2
Identifies one (1) distinct method of redistributing copyrighted digital multimedia,  or assist in redistributing copyrighted digital multimedia1

Sample Solutions (grouped)
Methods of redistributing copyrighted digital media include
  • Optical Storage (DVD, CDs) - physical
  • Video Tapes - physical
  • Online File Storage (rapidshare, megaupload) - download from file server
  • Streaming (Youtube, Veoh, Megavideo) - streaming on-demand
  • Livestream (livestream.com, own3d.tv) - streaming - live
  • Peer to Peer torrent (Bittorrent) - Torrent Client
  • Torrent-sharing sites (Piratebay) - Link sharing (torrents)
  • Online ‘link’-sharing sites (sidereel) - Link sharing (direct link)

E.g. 3 marks for identifying physical, torrent and streaming services which assist in redistributing copyrighted digital multimedia.
CriteriaMarks
Question 2: Total4
Proposes and justifies an argument against the acceptance of the bill incorporating two (2) issues regarding Changing Nature of Work.4
Proposes and justifies an argument against the acceptance of the bill incorporating one (1) issue  regarding Changing Nature of Work.3
Proposes, without justification an argument against the acceptance of the bill incorporating two (2) issues regarding Changing Nature of Work.2
Proposes, without justification an argument against the acceptance of the bill incorporating one (1) issue regarding Changing Nature of Work.1

Sample Answers
  • People/companies streaming video games/hosting streaming services can no longer do their job without a (possibly expensive) license (e.g. Machinima)
  • Streaming services, such as Youtube/Veoh will earn less from advertisements, as a large number of videos will have to be removed and less overall traffic.
  • The bill inhibits the growth of an online video game industry revolving around personal contributions by limiting ‘free’ advertising and personal opinions (Self-publishers, e.g. Justin Bieber was found by singing karaoke on Youtube. This would be illegal under the current bill. Riot Games, publishers of League of Legends, have sourced their employees from independent streamers of their game).
  • Overseas countries will still be able to stream video games/host ‘copyrighted’ content. This will cause the video game/multimedia industry to shift overseas, removing the United States as the primary market of video game sales due to prohibitvely expensive restrictions on third-party advertisement and access to video reviews, etc.
CriteriaMarks
Question 3: Total6
Discusses (both positive effects and negative effects) three (3) social and ethical issues, other than changing nature of work, raised by the bill, and analyses the implications it has on the relevant parties.6
Discusses (both positive effects and negative effects) two (2) social and ethical issues, other than changing nature of work, raised by the bill, and analyses the implications it has on the relevant parties.4
Proposes one (1) social and ethical issue, other than changing nature of work, arised by the bill, and analyses the implications it has on the relevant parties.2

Identifying issues without explanation of implications does not earn any marks. Look for explanations moreso than ‘names’ of issues (i.e., don’t deduct marks for incorrectly identifying the name of the issue but providing an adequate explanation)
Sample Answers:
  • (Effect on Business/Consumer)With digital redistribution of media via ‘public performance’ a criminal penalty, film industries can feel more confident in collectively overcharge their popular products (e.g. Harry Potter movies). However, this can also lead to a more competitive market, regulated by supply and demand, and without the third party factor of ‘free’ access to products.
  • (Data integrity): Independent video game (in particular, but all multimedia to an extent) reviewers can not as easily voice their opinions, returning to the ‘dark age of video games’. Video game companies can pay reviewers to provide positive reviews, or provide biased reviews to further own profits. This can also increase the integrity of the review, however, as the removal of independent (and possibly biased) reviews can pave the way for a more complete product.
  • (Data accuracy): Reviewers who are paid to put forward reviews may tell ‘white lies’ to entice people to buy the product (and thus earn more money from future projects). This can also increase the accuracy of the review, however, as the removal of independent (and possibly biased) reviews can pave the way for a more complete product.
  • (Fair Use): (In America) it is a (constitutional) right to use copyrighted works for purposes of criticism or review. This bill will make it a criminal penalty to do so.
  • (Ownership): The bill allows governments to intervene and prosecute offenders for criminal acts, without the knowledge of the copyright holder. (Criminal prosecution allows for temporary detention until proven innocent). It is possible though that the copyright holder did not know of this breach of copyright, and that the government is doing them a favour.
  • (Ownership): Adequately modifying copyrighted data (e.g. performing research for an assignment) makes the data your own. The proposed bill allows governments to prosecute your work, on the foundation that it contains data from other sources, regardless of your own contribution. (Artist animation, karaoke, etc). However, ‘own contribution’ is difficult to define.
  • (Ownership): Film, TV and song producers have greater protection to their products. They earn more money due to less accessibility of pirated products.
  • (Ownership): Companies can earn more money by selling streaming licenses (e.g. to Machinima). Companies can ‘do more’ with the product they own. Prohibitively expensive licenses, however, may adversely impact on public knowledge of their product, leading to a decrease in profits.
  • There will be a shift in internet culture, as a large amount of multimedia hosted in the United States will be removed. (Think of it as if 90% of the Chinese Food shops in Sydney were removed beacuse Chinese food became illegal). For Example: Videos will no longer be able to use ‘copyrighted’ music.
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