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Jacaranda Questions

Contents

  1. 1 Chapter 1: Project Work
    1. 1.1 Unit 1.1 Project management
    2. 1.2 Unit 1.2 Understanding the problem
    3. 1.3 Unit 1.3 Making decisions
    4. 1.4 Unit 1.4 Designing Solutions
    5. 1.5 Unit 1.5 Implementing systems
    6. 1.6 Unit 1.6 Testing, evaluating and maintaining systems
  2. 2 Chapter 2: Information systems and databases
    1. 2.1 Unit 2.1 Information systems
    2. 2.2 Unit 2.2 Examples of database information systems
    3. 2.3 Unit 2.3 Basic data organisation methods
    4. 2.4 Unit 2.4 Organisation of data in databases
    5. 2.5 Unit 2.5 The organisation of data in hypermedia systems
    6. 2.6 Unit 2.6 Storage and protection
    7. 2.7 Unit 2.7 Data retrieval
    8. 2.8 Unit 2.8 Other processes and issues for information systems
  3. 3 Chapter 3: Communication Systems
    1. 3.1 Unit 3.1: Characteristics of communication systems
    2. 3.2 Unit 3.2: Examples of communication systems
    3. 3.3 Unit 3.3: Transmitting and receiving in communication systems
    4. 3.4 Unit 3.4: Network devices
    5. 3.5 Unit 3.5: Network services
    6. 3.6 Unit 3.6: Other information processes in communications systems
    7. 3.7 Unit 3.7: Issues related to communications systems
  4. 4 Chapter 5: Decision support systems
    1. 4.1 Unit 5.1: Characteristics of decision support systems
    2. 4.2 Unit 5.2: Examples of decision support systems
    3. 4.3 Unit 5.3: Organising and decision support
    4. 4.4 Unit 5.4: Processing and decision support
    5. 4.5 Unit 5.5: Analysing and decision support
    6. 4.6 Unit 5.6: Other information processes and issues related to decision support
    7. 4.7 Unit 5.7: Issues related to decision support
    8. 4.8 Mastery Test
  5. 5 Chapter 7: Multimedia systems
    1. 5.1 Unit 7.1: Characteristics of multimedia systems
    2. 5.2 Unit 7.2: Hardware requirements of multimedia
    3. 5.3 Unit 7.3: Examples of multimedia systems
    4. 5.4 Unit 7.4: Creating and displaying multimedia
    5. 5.5 Unit 7.5: Collecting and organising processes in multimedia systems
    6. 5.6 Unit 7.6: Storing and retrieving processes in multimediasystems
    7. 5.7 Unit 7.7: Other processes in multimedia systems
    8. 5.8 Unit 7.8: Issues related to multimedia systems
 
 

Chapter 1: Project Work

Unit 1.1 Project management

 
 

Unit 1.2 Understanding the problem

3. How are users involved in the building of a prototype?
The users are the ones who provide the information needed to contrusct the inital prototype. They then examine the prototype to provide feedback such as identifying errors. This feedback can then be used to modify and improve the prototype. When a new system is being developed, the users examine and test the prototypes to assess their suitability.
 
4. How are communication skills important in prototyping?
 
5. How can a spreadsheet be used as a model?
  
6. What software tools would you need to prototype a new site?
  

Unit 1.3 Making decisions

1. What is the purpose of a feasibility study?
 A feasibility study asseses the suitability of a solution from the user's point of view.
 
2. What is the purpose of the functional specification?
A functional specification explains the effect of the project on the business and users, its benegits and costs, and the risks. 
 
3. What is a project plan?
A project plan details the steps, resources and schedule for the development of a new system. 
 
4. How can a functional specification br important for the acceptance of a project?
 
 
5. Many companies use outside consultants to evaluate feasibility proposals and to make final recommendations instead of using their own project staff for this task. Suggest reasons for this approach.
 
 
6. What is the advantage of a Gantt chart over text-based schedules?
 
 

Unit 1.4 Designing Solutions

 

Unit 1.5 Implementing systems

 

Unit 1.6 Testing, evaluating and maintaining systems

 

Chapter 2: Information systems and databases

Unit 2.1 Information systems

 Q1. What is the difference between data and information?
Data are raw facts. Information has meaning and purpose.
 
Q2. List the four types of infomration systems:
TPS, MIS, DSS, OAS.
 
Q3. Which type of infomration system provides data for the others?
TPS.
 
Q4. How are data, information and knowledge related?
Data is organised in a form that is more useful i.e. information. Information is analysed to give knowledge.
 
Q5. How do the four infomration systems depend on each other?
The TPS uses data about sales, employeed, wages, purchases, orders, taxes, manufacturing and the warehouse to produce a transaction databases. This is used by the MIS to produce budget reports, profit/loss statements and sales summaries. These MIS reports along with the transaction database and external data e.g. the census and National economic reports and trade figures produce forecasts, trend and analysis as it passes through the DSS. The OAS uses this to manage the vast quantities of information and data.

Unit 2.2 Examples of database information systems

 

Unit 2.3 Basic data organisation methods

1. What are the two types of databse information systems in caommon use? 
Flat-file and relational.
 
2. List some of the advantages of a manual information system.
  • They don't require a computer, power supply or batteries.
  • They can be very portable.
  • No special skills and training needed.
3. What is a DBMS?
A database management system. This is a computer software that manages databases.
 
4. FIgure 2.11 shows a data flow diagram for a manual appointment diary. Would the diagram be different from a computerised appointment diary? Explain.
No. 
 
5. Complete table 2.1 for the following information tasks - a set of recipes, an adventure novel, your personal CD collection.
 
 Information task Manual system  Flat file DBMS   Relational DBMS Hypermedia 
 A set of recipes  Ideal if amount of recipes is small allowing high portability and easy access.  Good for a collection,  Too complicated.  Ideal for sharing recipes.
 An adventure novel  Ideal due to easier access and portability. Also better from an ergonomic point-of-view.  Suitable. Too complicated.   Ideal for sharing but copyright issues may arise.
 Personal CD collection  Idea if properly organised and collection is small. Otherwise, it will take up a lot of space.  Good for short lists.  Suitable but may be too complex depending on amount.  Good for sharing with others.
 
  
6. What are the privacy and security issues raised by web-based personal information systems?
Personal information such as those in diaries may be revealed to the public as well as information about other people in it.
 
7. What manual information systems are still used in your school? How could they be converted to computer based?
 Day sheet can be posted on the intranet instead or emailed.
 

Unit 2.4 Organisation of data in databases

1. Name the data components of a flat file information system.
Database, file, redord, field, key field, character.
 
2. What additional components are found in a relational database?
Relationships, attributes, calculated fields.
 
3. What is a required field.
It is a field that must contain data and cannot be left blank.
 
4. Why should relational databses be normalised.
So that unnecessary and redundant links can be removed. This improves performance and speed.
 
5. In which situations would a required field be needed in a database.
 Fields like surnames and addresses are usually required fields.
 
6. What validation operations can your DBMS software perform.
 Check boxes, option (or radio buttons) and drop down menus.

Unit 2.5 The organisation of data in hypermedia systems

 Q1. What is a hypermedia link?
It is anything that links to new information.
 
Q2. What is metadata?
Data that describes other data.
 
Q3. List three different web design application tools.
Text editor, HTML editor, Web editor.

Unit 2.6 Storage and protection

 Q1. How can a database be protected from accidental or unnecessary changes?
Record locking, levels of access and using master and transaction files.
 
Q2. Which stroage devices use sequential access?
Magnetic tapes.
 
Q3. How does offsite storage protect data?
From events such as fire or theft.
 
Q4. What steps would a DBMS have to perform to get the latest copy of a record froma master file/transaction file system?
  1. Changes made to transaction file.
  2. Check.
  3. Merged with master.
  4. Master is copied to replace the old transaction file.
Q5. Using the terms online/offline, shared/distributed, direct/sequential, describe the information systems available for student use in your school.
 
Q6. How does the school office or library protect its data.
 Backups.

Unit 2.7 Data retrieval

 

Unit 2.8 Other processes and issues for information systems

 
 

Chapter 3: Communication Systems

 

Unit 3.1: Characteristics of communication systems

1. What are the four elements of communication?
Sender, receiver, mesasge and medium.
 
2. What is the difference between Baud and bits per second?
Baud is the number of distinct signal events or timing intervals in a second. Bits per second (bps) is the number of bits that are transmitted in a second.
 
3. List three error detection methods.
Parity check, checksum and cyclic redundancy check (CRC).
 
5. What strategies to retransmission protocols use to improve their efficiency?
In one of the more popular error correction protocols, v.42, the sending computer is required to store in memory the last 15 blocks transmitted. This allows it to quickly retransmit any revent faulty block reported by the revceiving computer. If message blocks are large, then retranimitting an entire block will slow down the communication link. To avoid this, most protocols will reduce the size of the message blocks when errors are detected as retransmitting smaller blocks wastes less time. The blocks will be returned to their original size if no more errors are detected.
 
6. How is the sending device made aware that an error has taken place?
The receiving computer requests the message to be sent again.
 

Unit 3.2: Examples of communication systems

 

Unit 3.3: Transmitting and receiving in communication systems

 

Unit 3.4: Network devices

 

Unit 3.5: Network services

 

Unit 3.6: Other information processes in communications systems

 

Unit 3.7: Issues related to communications systems

 

Chapter 5: Decision support systems

Unit 5.1: Characteristics of decision support systems

1. What are the three stages of decision making?
Intelligence, design, choice.
 
2. What are the stages of problem solving?
Decision making, implementing, evaluating.
 
3. What is a programmed decision?
Decisions that are made using a rule, procedure or quantitative method.
 
5. Given an example of a fully structured problem and a fully unstrucctured problem other than those used in this chapter.
 
6. What is the difference between 'what-if' analysis and goal seeking?
In what-if analysis, changes are made to data to observe results. In goal seeking, it is the other way around, where the goal is changed and the data needed to produce such a result is to be found.
 

Infobox: Getting a loan
Banks and finacne companies are developing automated loan assessing systems so that instant loan approvals can be offered 24 hours a day over information services such as the Internet.

1. What would these systems need to know about you to make a loan approval?
Income, credit rating, assets, current liabilities.

2. How would they get this information?
Information can be obtained directly from the applicant through a form (with proof) or from the government. Permission from the applicant will be needed for this.

3. What are the privacy implications?
Privacy of information...
 
 
 

Unit 5.2: Examples of decision support systems

 

Unit 5.3: Organising and decision support

 

Unit 5.4: Processing and decision support

4. Explain the functions for the four main parts of an expert system: the knowledge base, the data base, the inference engine and the user interface.
 
5. Consider an expert system that has the following rules (the facts are respresented by single letters):
            Rules: 1. IF A AND D THEN S
                        2. IF B AND R THEN P
                        3. IF D AND P THEN Q
                        4. IF S AND P THEN M
                        5. IF B AND M THEN C
and the following initially known facts: A, B, D and R.
 
(a) Use forward chaining to prove C. Write down the rules that you use and a list of inferred facts.
 
(b) Did you use all the rules in part (a)? Were all of the initially known facts necessary to prove C?
 
(c) Use backward chaining to prove C. Write down the rules that you use and a list of inferred facts.
 
 

Unit 5.5: Analysing and decision support

4. Why is it difficult to show trends using pie charts? Can it be done? Explain.
A pie chart compares individual values and only some types of data are suitable for pie charts. For example, costs of various components for one year is good use of pie chart.
 
5. What features of data make data mining necessary? In your answer explain what data mining does.
 
8. Investigate the functions available in your spreadsheet software. How many are there? How are they organised? How are they organised? How good is the help facility in explaining their functions and how to use them? Choose two that you did not know existed and describe them in detail.
 

Unit 5.6: Other information processes and issues related to decision support

Infobox: Common sense engineering

Using the Web as a knowledge collection tool overcomes some of the problems of data acquisition but creates others. What problems does it overcome and create?
 
Problems overcome
  • Wider range of data is easily accessible for many people.
Problems created
  • Data needs to be accurate.
  • Ownership and control of such data.
  • Too much data.

Unit 5.7: Issues related to decision support

 

Mastery Test

23. Who is responsible for decisions made using DSSs? Explain your answer.
 
24. Summarise the process of building a DSS that involves an expert system, List the people involved and describe their roles.
 
27. Expain the role of input weights or 'fuzzy logic' in artificial neural networks. What advantages does this give them over conventional systems?
 
 
 

Chapter 7: Multimedia systems

Unit 7.1: Characteristics of multimedia systems

 

Unit 7.2: Hardware requirements of multimedia

4. How many images are needed to create a morph? Why?
Only two images are needed, one for the start and one for the end. The computer will create the morph by slightly altering each frame. THe graphic artist only needs to retouch for a smoother effect.
 
5. Would you describe a morph as a cel-based or path-based animation? Why?
Path-based because the system does the actual morphing.
 
6. Why are most multimedia video clips played in a small area of the screen?
Most video clips are low resolution because high-resolution takes up too much space. If a smaller area is used, loss of quality is not noticeable.
 
7. How do colour laser printers create colour images?
 
See here for diagrams.
  • Printer receivers data and it goes through a central controller in the printer.
  • Controller determines what is to be printed.
  • A drum holds electric charge in the printer and next to it is a transfer corona roller than can negatively or positively charge the drum and toner unit.
  • Using a small laser, it makes the drum negative creating a electrostatic image.
  • Drum roll through toner which is positive so is attracted to negative areas.
  • Paper fed through that is more negative made by the transfer corona wire.
  • Electrostatic image on drum onto paper.
  • Fed through fuser which heats the toner to make it bind to paper fibres.
  • A discharge lamp erases drum.
Colour laser printers perform multiple passes. Most printers use blue, red and yellow ink and black. Or,the ink is progressively laid onto the drum and only one pass is necessary. Some larger printers have different drums for each colour and the paper passes each.
 

Unit 7.3: Examples of multimedia systems

 

Unit 7.4: Creating and displaying multimedia

3. Which type of software for creating multimedia requires the most experience to use?
Programming software.
 
4. Which method of developing multimedia would be the most expensive? 
Programming software, because the initial program is the most expensive and the level of training required would cost more to either hire, train or learn.
 
5. A good quality multimedia presentation has to be created quickly. Which software type would you  use? Why?
Authoring software is good quality but requires minor training so will be created quicker.
 
6. Prepare a report comparing the freatures of different multimedai creation tools available in your school.
Application packages are very quick to use and required no training but have low performance and quality and little feautres. Authoring software is relatively quick development with minor training and good quality. However it still has limited features and low to reasonable performance. Both are cheaper than other software.
 

Unit 7.5: Collecting and organising processes in multimedia systems

1. List two scanner settings that will affect image file sizes.
DPI and bit depth.
 
2. List the digitising settings that will affect the quality of an audio recording.
Sampling rate, bit resolution, stereo or mono recording.
 
3. Which storyboard layout gives the user the most control over a presentation?
Composite.
 
4. Most web video capture cameras produce very 'jerky' motion. Explain why.
The jerky motion would probably be due to a slow frame rate. This and other factors enable the video be be of a smaller size and therefore be able to be transmitted faster.
 
5. Why is an audio CD restricted to about an hour of recorded music?
Due to the physical size of the actual disk which will limit the number of pits and lands that it can have.
 
6. Most consumer video equipment produces 'composite video' signals instead of the RGB used by computer VDUs. What is 'composite video'?
It is the signal used by analog televisions before there is audio i.e. only images.
 
7. Digital cameras used CCD instead of film. What is CCD and how does it work?
CCD stands for charged-coupled device and its simplified purpose is to convert light into electrons. It then reads the value which is the accumulated charge of each cell in the image. The CCD transports this charge across the chip and reads it at one corner of the array before the ADC (analog-to-digital converter) measures the charge at each photosite adn converts it to binary.
 

Unit 7.6: Storing and retrieving processes in multimediasystems

3. What are 'pits' and 'lands'?
Each pit/land and land/pit represents a single binary 1. The flat areas of both the pits and lands represent a sequence of binary 0s.
 
4. Why are CD-ROM and DVD popular methods for distributing multimedia?
They are relatively cheap and can store a lot of data. 
 
8. What improvements in laser technology have made DVD possible?
The ability to produce smaller pits to increase the storage capacity of DVDs as opposed to CDs and increased accuracy.

Unit 7.7: Other processes in multimedia systems

1. List two methods of reducing the storage size of an image.
Dithering and data compression.
 
2. Name the process used to put live audio and video on the Web.
Streaming.
 
3. List three features of a VDU that affect image quality.
 
4. Why are 'lossy' data compression methods never used on text data?
 
5.Suggest why MPEG has become the standard for difital television ad DVD movies.
 
6. What are zip format files? What special feature do they have that makes them very useful for distributing multimedia? 

Unit 7.8: Issues related to multimedia systems

 
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