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Solo Project

posted Dec 14, 2009, 4:23 AM by Unknown user   [ updated Dec 14, 2009, 4:34 AM by Eddie Woo ] Case Study + others.

posted Sep 22, 2009, 3:21 AM by Unknown user   [ updated Sep 28, 2009, 6:59 AM by Eddie Woo ]

School League Tables

posted Sep 14, 2009, 3:35 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Sep 15, 2009, 5:20 AM by Eddie Woo ]

Classwork: [link]
School league tables are aimed to provide information about the ranking of schools based on national literacy and numeracy results.
  • Make available the details of the academic results of schools - parents have some knowledge of where they want their children to go
  • Pushes to improve academic results of students
    • Could be useful to a certain degree
  • Provides feedback for schools - tells schools when their students are not adequately educated
  • Gives 'good' students a chance to work with those who are similar to them in ability - could be beneficial
  • Do not assess a wide range of abilities - only looks at test results, & only in numeracy & literacy
    • Cannot express the merits of a school in a number - there are many types
    • Pressure schools into improving the students' examination results rather than other important skills
      • Could overlook students who are academically below average but otherwise talented
    • Do not help prepare students for the real world - numeracy & literacy skills are only useful in the real world up to a certain point
  • Well-performing students in 'failing' schools may be undervalued
    • Job prospects are worse
  • Other things can be done to improve the standards of failing schools - funding and support can be provided
    • The money going into producing league tables could be given to improve schooling, especially when...
    • The government already has an idea of which schools are performing poorly
  • Do not account for schools with students from disadvantaged backgrounds
    • Encourages segregation of different backgrounds (ethnic and social) & abilities in community
    • Does not give 'poor' students a chance to work with 'better' students
  • Newspapers already publish rankings of some high schools based on the results of the HSC.
Emerging technologies
  • It is now possible to collect & analyse the massive amounts of data to produce league tables without taking up too much time or effort.
  • Communication technologies can make league tables available to many people, whereas before, it would have been a lot more difficult to spread information quickly and widely.
Although there are potential benefits of school league tables, it seems that they are largely unnecessary. The results are based only on national assessments on numeracy and literacy, and the merit of the school is represented by a ranking. This does not take into account the development of students in non-academic fields, nor does it take into account that the academic abilities of students cannot be assessed by tests alone. The introduction of league tables may pressure schools into training their students for tests instead of equipping students with useful skills in life.
Well-performing students may also be disadvantaged if they attend or attended a 'failing' school. The system does not account for schools that have a high population of disadvantaged students, and can encourage segregation of students from different backgrounds and of different academic abilities. This can be detrimental to the 'poorer' group of students, who will not have the chance to work with 'better' students who can potentially be positive influences.
It is mentioned that the government already have an idea which schools are not performing well. Sometimes, it is funding and support that these schools require. Instead of using money to produce league tables that present already known information, the costs could be used to assist 'failing' schools. Other forms of ranking schools are also already present in, for example, the 'top __' lists produced by newspapers every year based on HSC results for NSW.

IPT Trials

posted Sep 7, 2009, 5:17 AM by Unknown user   [ updated Sep 7, 2009, 4:43 PM by Eddie Woo ]

a) Issues aren't questions, although questions can be reworded so that it isn't phrased as a question.
b) Didn't explain the interaction between the components.
Collect competitor details manually with a form, then entered into computer. Competitors may also register online (go onto website, use information technology). Timing devices & timing mats collect times; that data then transformed into information, results displayed on website.
d) Didn't do
Collecting - the system is designed to get accurate times - quantitative record
Analysing - graphs & charts, calculations, identify patterns & trends (can see progress in performance)
Storing & Retrieving - can access the data at later date, maintain records over long time
Displaying - the results are shown on the website, people can get useful information
c) Need multimedia software - my answer focused more on the coding side of the website & not the content.
Graphics package - manipulate images
Word processing - articles
Relevant software for video & audio
a) Need to be more specific about the problems with the issues
Misuse & abuse - can quickly collect information (can collect lots of different types of data, such as images, audio,& convenient Internet access means that this information can quickly be spread around)
Cause strain - screen is too small (eye strain), keys are quite close together
& newspapers are portable.
b) i) Author was the entity, not the way they got data into the system
   ii) Have to talk about the relationships between the issues
Virtual communities with members from all over the world
- people can meet more people, humanitarian efforts
- terrorists
Information can be spread further more quickly
- people become more aware of things happening around the world, share information & knowledge
- privacy can be invaded & confidential information can be spread around very quickly
New technologies spreading more information about the world
- more competition leads to higher quality service
- problems with data integrity
c) Have to be more specific about the issues - my answer did not go into the details of each aspect
- increased volume of traffic
- student demands will increase - consider scalability & future development
- quality & specifications of hardware
- hiring technicians, technical support officers
- look at things over long term
- need powerful data & network server
- hardware & software infrastructure
- more IT staff
- academic staff shouldn't have to deal with too many changes
- IT staff need to be on site, may need more personnel
- occupational health & safety - radiation
- filtering & censorship
a) ii) The system is semi-structured
   iii) Answer was too generalised - need to relate to the situation.
Inputs quite certain - need the position of head (eyes, ears), blinking patterns. May not have relevant data, or the data is difficult to analyse
Criteria quite certain - the system knows how to make a decision based on the input
Outputs - as long as the input is there, it knows what output to give depending on the rules
b) Didn't do
Potential misuse - spying, invasion of privacy, false alarms, unfair dismissal
Responsibility - system designers, programmers, testers, researchers, system not being calibrated
Changing nature of technology - cost of system, training drivers, lives depending on technology
a) i) Need to relate to how 20Q would actually work in order to guess the object.
System learns by asking questions, confirm knowledge by asking questions. Players may answer differently, & system can weigh responses. Can choose most probable responses based on patterns. Parallel processing is used.
   ii) Answer was generally about neural networks, but should relate to how this particular system would work.
Randomly generate questions, gather answers to analyse trends & determine probable answers, incoporate into knowledge base. Ask questions that allow it to distinguish between similar objects.
a) Mobile phones & international phone calls are two types of technologies.
Internet access, mobile phones, international phone calls
b) Should make a distinction between alleged & confirmed uses, & should read article more carefully
Alleged - organisation of riots, co-ordinating, false rumours afterwards
Confirmed - blame on Muslim Uyghurs, spreading updates, daily updates & weather reports after riots
c) Needed a range of aspects - did not have enough
Severity of violence, significance of information & information systems, ease of quick response, disrupting, proximity, reliance on technology
d) Should relate to issues in the scenario
Prevent outside help coming in,
e) Didn't do
Marks lost:
Project Management: 2/11
Information systems: 5/10
Databases: 3/9 (excludes Q6)
Communication Systems: 17/36
Multimedia Systems: 5/26
Decision Support Systems: 14/32
Things to work on: issues, being more specific, interaction/relationship between various parts of the question, eliminate colloquial bits from answers. I also need much better time management.

Textbook questions

posted Aug 10, 2009, 3:36 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Aug 10, 2009, 3:52 PM by Eddie Woo ]

23. Who is responsible for decisions made using DSSs? Explain your answer.
The user of the system should be responsible for the decisions made by the system, because the decision support systems are designed to support their decision-making, not take over the process. The user is still the human & ultimately the one who makes the decision, even if it was suggested to them by the DSS.
However, if the system is faulty in the first place & makes inappropriate decisions as a result, the knowledge engineers, programmers & the people who tested the system should be held responsible as well.
24. Summarise the process of building a DSS that involves an expert system. List the people involved & describe their roles.
Building a DSS involving an expert system would require a knowledge engineer & a human expert of that domain. The human expert would have to supply the knowledge to the knowledge engineer, who would have to work out a suitable way to organise that so that the system can use the data.
Acquisition - data, information, rules & other knowledge is supplied to the system
Organising - the knowledge is put into a format that the system can understand
Validation - the system is tested to make sure that it works and the knowledge is correct
Design - the process of inferring new facts & understanding how they were reached
27. Explain the role of input weights or 'fuzzy logic' in artificial neural networks. What advantages does this give them over conventional systems?
Fuzzy logic allows for systems to deal with data that is neither completely true nor completely false. Instead, it gives the system probably

Search Algorithms

posted Aug 3, 2009, 9:54 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Aug 17, 2009, 9:40 PM by Eddie Woo ]

Search phrase: I need a phrase
Google: 77 700 000
I need a phrase in spanish for an engraving on a gift!!? - Yahoo!7 ...
"I need a phrase in spanish for an engraving on a gift!!?" - Find the answer to this question and millions more on Yahoo!7 Answers. - Cached - Similar 29,600,000
I need a phrase translated into Latin.
Question Tagged: Translation English To Latin Other Languages, Replies: 1 ... Ask a Question ... Translate phrase into Latin - Question by robbo...
23k - 3 sec @ 56k


Search phrase:

Knowledge Engineering

posted Aug 3, 2009, 3:04 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Aug 10, 2009, 3:26 AM by Eddie Woo ]

1. Identify some of the factors that make knowledge acquisition complicated.
  • Wide range of data presented in various forms
  • The amount of data required - what fits in with the rest of the knowledge base
  • Not knowing exactly what data may be required
2. Evaluate the importance of knowledge validation in a decision support system's knowledge base.
Knowledge validation is important because a decision support system is only useful if the data that it used to reach its conclusions were accurate. Otherwise, the decisions provided will probably be poor & unsuitable for the situation.
3. Describe a situation in which a decision support system (a) requires and (b) does not require the ability to provide sophisticated explanation and justification for its advice.
(a) A doctor needing to know why a DSS made a certain diagnosis
(b) A banker inputting information a client to see if they qualify for a loan.
4. Read the infobox on pages 216-217 and answer the question at the end.
Using the Web as a knowledge collection tool allows for many more people to contribute, which allows the knowlege engineer to collect many more facts. However, it also means that the inputs from the contributors may not be accurate (especially if it is deliberate), which would make either make the system inaccurate or require a long period of validation.
Classwork: [link]

Processing & Decision Support

posted Jul 30, 2009, 5:38 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Aug 10, 2009, 4:20 AM by Eddie Woo ]

1. A device like a video camera is primarily a collecting device; however, designers have found it useful to incorporate other processes into it for convenience (e.g. storing and retrieving). Collecting is the central process, while the others are peripheral. Explain why processing is the central process of decision support.
Processing is a central process to decision support because decision support systems deal with input data that help them reach an output. The main purpose for a decision support system is to improve the effectiveness of decision making, which means that data will have to be analysed & conclusions will have to be drawn.
2. Describe a shell and outline the reasons why programmers might include one in their decision support system.
A shell makes it easier for a user to use a decision support system. This may be included so that users only see what is relevant to them, & therefore will be less likely to get confused.
3. Contrast the decision support that is provided by (a) a spreadsheet with (b) an inference engine.
The spreadsheet only makes decisions that are quite structured. It basically summarises the data for the human user and allows the human user to draw conclusions, but it lacks insight or judgement. An inference engine, on the other hand, decides which rules and which data would be used, and attempts to apply these so that a logical conclusion can be made. In this case, it would actually be suggesting a decision instead of merely supplying the data that would support one.
4. With regard to forward chaining and backward chaining:
    (a) Outline each of the processes.
    (b) For each, identify two examples where it would be suitable where its counterpart would not be.
    (c) 'On the right' is a table of all the HSC electives that can be chosen in years 11 and 12. Use both forward and backward chaining to come up with a list of alternative solutions for the subjects you will choose for next year, and thoroughly document the process.
(a) Forward chaining infers facts from the information entered into the system to reach a conclusion. Backward chaining works out the information that needs to be entered in order to reach a certain conclusion.
(b) Forward chaining: someone looking for a car they have the ability to buy and maintain, depending on their current situation. Backward chaining: someone deciding to buy a car, and deciding what criteria they have to meet in order to make things work out.
5. Answer questions 4 and 5 on page 206 of the textbook.
4. Explain the functions of the four major parts of an expert system: the knowledge base, the data base, the inference engine & the user interface.
Knowledge base: holds all the data, information, rules & other knowledge of the expert system
Database: holds all the information about the current problem - data put in about it, inferred facts, rules to reach certain conclusions...
Inference engine: decides which rules to use when and with what facts - the part of the system that works towards the solution
User interface: allows the user to understand how to input data into the system
5. Consider an expert system that has the following rules (the facts are represented by single letters):
and the following initially known facts: A, B, D & R
(a) Use forward chaining to prove C. Write down the rules that you use & a list of inferred facts.
IF A AND D THEN S, therefore S
IF B AND R THEN P, therefore P
IF S AND P THEN M, therefore M
IF B AND M THEN C, therefore C
(b) Did you use all the rules in part (a)? Were all of the initially known facts necessary to prove C?
No, only some of them were used.
(c) Use backward chaining to prove C. Write down the rules that you use & a list of inferred facts.
IF B AND M THEN C, therefore B & M
IF S AND P THEN M, therefore S & P
IF B AND R THEN P, therefore R
IF A AND D THEN S, therefore A & D
Classwork: [link]

Spreadsheet DSSs

posted Jul 30, 2009, 4:37 AM by Unknown user   [ updated Jul 30, 2009, 4:38 AM by Eddie Woo ]

T2 Exam Review

posted Jun 29, 2009, 3:19 AM by Unknown user   [ updated Jun 29, 2009, 5:00 AM by Eddie Woo ]

21. a) AAC = Advanced Analogue Coding.
b) Benefit - less storage space is needed to store the data. Drawback - data is lost, so the file that is retrieved will be of much lower quality.
c) For this type of question, it's good to mention things which would cover the different aspects of JPEG (in this case).
This procedure would benefit for graphics that are to be used on websites and other multimedia presentations in which the image does not have to be particularly high quality. This method would also be used to email the image to other people.
f) Threshold dithering - the pixel is set to either black or white depending on whichever one its equivalent shade of grey is closest to.
a) The mesh would be the most suitable as the servers would constantly have a lot of traffic in and out. Mesh networks lessen the amount of data that have to be carried on any given cable and allows easy access in between the servers. Multiple pathways to each server would also be useful in the case that one cable is damaged.
c) ii) Changing the thin clients to thick clients allows them to store some of their own data, lessening their dependence on the servers and placing less strain on the network. The adding of a network backbone would also help as it can carry more data between the routers.
d) Missing: network problems - increased traffic & problems with data packets. Data packets going missing & network slowdowns are two different things...
Streaming video over the network greatly increases the amount of traffic, causing slowdowns in other parts of the network. This could be fixed by adding a backbone to the network. Data packets could be missing or corrupted, but the implementation of a collision detection protocol (e.g. CSMA/CD) increases chances of the data packets arriving at their intended destination. Network slowdowns must also be accounted for, and the use of buffering techniques can allow the playback of the video to be normal even when the network is slow.
24. have to look over the whole thing.
25. (Critically) Analyse -  Identify components and the relationship between them; draw out and relate implications)
Raising awareness - Multimedia can play a big role in raising awareness, because it can use the strengths of several media types to convey the message. With the use of communications systems, warnings to the community can be made a lot faster than the traditional methods of communication.
Education - Multimedia documentaries can be effective in teaching people about the dangers of the disease and teaching them the most effective way to deal with it. Again, communications systems help spread this to the wider community quickly.
Diagnosis - Communications systems make it possible to diagnose people in remote areas, because doctors can use teleconferencing technologies to talk to their patients.
Analysis of geographical and chronological trends - Multimedia is a useful tool for presenting analysis, because different types are media are suitable for displaying different things. A combination of images (e.g. maps) and text (important information) can be useful in displaying the analysis. Communications systems also allow people in different countries to be working on the same analysis with the data from different areas, and also can be used to distribute the analysis to keep people informed of the situation.
Quarantine - People could be found to be ill on certain planes into other countries. Using communications systems, countries can be informed in advance if there will be ill people entering the country, and the country can prepare for the sick people's arrival in advance. Through telecommuting, people can work even while in quarantine.
Identification of carriers - Countries can be informed if they will be having any carriers of the disease enter their country. The use of heat scanners with outputs to a VDU can identify patients with fever.
Safe containment of infected patients - Use of multimedia systems allow contact between the infected patients and other people outside quarantine.
b) Not getting enough for communications - missing: International standard for communication, dedicated servers for user-uploaded videos, fast Internet access (accessibility to streamed videos). Multimedia also includes: modern computers being effective display devices, affordable video camera, public video compression codecs.
Communications - the ease of distribution of data & information over the Internet, as well as the ease of streaming video due to faster Internet access by most people, allowed his video to be shown to more people than before. This is also helped by the ability to upload videos onto the Internet, due to the dedicated video servers for user-uploaded videos.
c) Missing one...includes: changing nature of work - new way to earn money (on top of affecting the jobs of others), publication of undesirable data (offensive material, on top of misleading 'information'), political controversy, invasion of privacy, censorship vs. freedom of speech, breach of copyright
d) Must answer question - should or should not implement? Also, more points needed.
A censorship policy should not be implemented because it would limit the freedom of the people in Guatemala. Information that is against the government could be hidden from the public, and to a certain point, the government can control the knowledge that is available to people. It could also lead to other unlawful acts as people try to get past the censorship. A large part of the success of the Internet is because it is unregulated, but censorship would change that.
News post: [link]
Exam: [link]
Exam w/ solutions: [link]

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