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Class Work

30/11/10 - Hypermedia Systems

posted Nov 29, 2010, 2:52 PM by Unknown user

Retrieved - hyperlinks (thought)
Organised - non-linear
  • Web directories (index, list, hierarchy) HUMAN is writing this, gives human perspective  YAHOO
  • Search engines - by program, by human
Meta: language (noun, verb, adjective adverb) , play, cognition, narrative
Metadata - Data about data (e.g. data dictionary)
Tags or Keywords

29/11/10 - Databaes Research Task

posted Nov 28, 2010, 2:53 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Nov 29, 2010, 3:33 AM ]

Each of the following items relates to (a) DATA WAREHOUSES and (b) DATA MINING.
1. Describe what each is.
Data warehouses is a collection of data designed to support management decision-making.
Data mining involves the use of software that looks for hidden patterns in a group of data.
2. Outline the benefits that can be gained by organisations that keep these.
  • A common data model for all data of interest regardless of the source of the data. This makes it easier to report and analyse information than it would be if multiple data models were used to retrieve information such as sale invoices and order receipts.  
  • Inconsistencies can be identified and resolves prior to loading data into the data warehouse. This greatly simplifies reporting and analysis.
  • Information in the data warehouse is under the control of data warehouse users so that even if the source system data is purged over time, the information in the warehouse can be stored safely for extended periods of time.
  • As they are separate from operational systems, data warehouses provide retrieval of data without slowing down operational systems.
  • Data warehouses facilitate decision support system applications such as trend reports (e.g. the items with the the most sales in a particular area within the last two years) and reports that show actual performance versus goals.
  • Data warehouses can work in conjunction with, and hence the value of, operational business applications.
With data mining, a retailer could use point-of-sale records of customer purchases to send targeted promotions based on an individual's purchase history. By mining demographic data from comment or warranty cards, the retailer could develop products and promotions to appeal to specific customer segments.
3. Explain with examples how each could potentially be abused.
Data warehouses are essentially centralised places of data storage, which comes with its related security and privacy issues. Access to the data has to be carefully considered to allow only appropriate people to access specific data. Otherwise, it opens the door to misuse and abuse of information.
Data mining raises issues of privacy and ownership of data. Separate chunks of data will probably not be able to reveal enough of a person to identify preferences, weaknesses and habits. However, if these chunks of data were to combined (e.g. membership in companies/clubs, online purchasing history), data on what we buy, how we pay for it, and how much we earn can be found and linked to provide holistic view of a person.
After trends have been identified, it is debatable whether the new information belongs to the individuals or organisations. 
4. Using the internet, identify two companies that do each (for a total of four companies) and justify (with examples) the use of such methods for each company.
WikiLeaks - Data mining is used by WikiLeaks in an attempt to promote transparency. However, in practice, this involves the release of otherwise confidential and sensitive documents.
Google - Google provides multiple online services to the worldwide community (e.g. Google Chrome, Gmail, Picasa). All these services all combined with a common user profile and account under Google Accounts.
Paypal - Paypal essentially serves as the middleman between buyers, sellers, and payment facilities. Data supplied by all 3 entities are stored by Paypal. The use of data warehouses is important in keeping all data centralised.

Microsoft - By considering multiple factors including distance, traffic flow and signals, direction changes, and the probability of accidents through the use of data mining, the fastest route can be picked.

15/11/10 - Learning Activities pg.63

posted Nov 14, 2010, 3:43 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Nov 14, 2010, 5:10 PM ]

Create a data dictionary and an ERD for this database.
Field Name
Data Type 
Field Size 
WHERE PeopleCapacity >8
WHERE Model = "Toyota"
SELECT PatronID, FirstName, LastName
WHERE LastName = S*
SELECT PatronID, FirstName, LastName
WHERE wat da beep
SELECT JobNumber, AmountReceived
WHERE AmountReceived > $40
ORDER BY AmountReceived DESC
SELECT PatronID, FirstName, LastName
WHERE AmountReceived < $40
ORDER BY AmountReceived DESC
SELECT JobNumber
Where Model = "Toyota" OR Destination = "Sydney"
SELECT PatronID, FirstName, LastNae
Where Colour = "Red" AND Address contains a
2. a) First names and last names of employees will be displayed from tables "Employee" and "Wage" who work in the sport department and whose weekly pay is over $1000. The results are ordred by last name.
b) EmployeeIDs will be displayed of employees from tables "Employee" and "Wage" who live in Cabramatta or get paid on the 31/07/01. The results are ordered by last name in descending order.
SELECT FirstName, LastName
FROM Employee, Wage
WHERE Employee.Deparrtment = "Office" AND Suburb = "Ryde" OR "Hunters Hill"
SELECT FirstName, LastName, Address
FROM Employee, Wage
WHERE Wage.WeeklyTax < 50
ORDER BY Wage.WeeklyTax

08/11/10 - Choosing Data Types

posted Nov 7, 2010, 2:29 PM by Unknown user

Consider a series of Facebook profiles as a flat-file database. Create a flat-file database.
Name - Text
Date of Birth - Numerical (Date)
Age - Numerical (Integer)
Display Picture - Text (BLOBs)
Video - Text (BLOBs)
Tags - Text, Numerical

04/11/10 - Databases

posted Nov 3, 2010, 2:11 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Nov 4, 2010, 4:25 PM ]

Database (n) 
Identify the type of database contained in the file, and justify your choice (think back to the definitions).
Describe the entities represented in this database.
The entities represented in the database include students and assessment performance.

Identify three instances of analysing that are occuring in this database, and explain their usefulness.

Give examples of records and fields in this database.

Identify an external database that draws data from this database.

Construct a data dictionary for the first 'sheet' in the database, titled "HSC Summary".

Discuss the use of an electronic format, over against a non-computer-based alternative, to store this database.

01/11/10 - S&E Issues in Project Management

posted Oct 31, 2010, 4:51 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Nov 10, 2010, 12:28 AM ]

1. Debate Topic

When a project development team develops a new system, copyright should belong to the individual members of the development team and not the development company.
2. Questions
(a) Outline the content of a typical funding management plan.
This is a record of the scheduling and costing of tasks and other expenses. It should specify how and when the funds will be allocated to each task. Procedures should be in place for ordering a product or service during the system's development. Accounts should be kept for each task to ensure that the task is completed on budget. Also, funds may have to be redistributed during development and there should be flexibility in the plan to do this.
(b) Outline the content of a typical communications management plan.
This is a record of when meetings are to be held throughout the development of the information system, the purpose of each meeting and who should attend. Information management software such as e-mail or electronic calendars can help the project leader to manage information and schedule tasks. A line of communication should be set up so that each group knows who to contact when answers to questions are required.
    (c) Predict likely consequences for projects developed without:
     (i) a funding management plan
The lack of a funding management plan would likely result in unsupervised spending. It would be extremely difficult to stay on budget, if there was actually one to adhere to. There would also be different methods of spending (e.g. cash payments, EFT transfers) which would make it even more difficult to track given their varied nature. Audits and checks would quite likely reveal unauthorised transactions and discrepancies in cash flow statements.
     (ii) a communications management plan.
The lack of a communications management plan would likely result in general inefficiency. More time would be spent clarifying misinterpretations than actually progressing on the project. Overlap in communications may occur due a range of mediums in communication. Certain members may prefer face-to-face communication and value its personal interaction, whilst others may value the easy access and convenience of video conferencing. Conflicts may arise in these situations where mediums of contact are not specified.

News post link

29/10/10 - More on the Spiral

posted Oct 28, 2010, 5:07 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Nov 9, 2010, 3:16 AM ]


1. Concept or Principle prototype (used for trials)
  • Limited functionality (particularly new functions)
  • Doesn't mimic appearance
2. Visual prototype
  • Designs or aesthetics
  • Doesn't work e.g. storyboard
3. Functional prototype
  • Small scale (not physical - usually)
  • Not mass-manufactured
  • More interested in handling of functions


1. Alpha
  • Testing for functionality (clear box)
2. Beta (state box or black box)
  • Feature complete
  • Testing for usability (e.g. Gaming - balance testing)
  • Open (free-for-all) or close (pilot)
  • Large scale testing
3. Release candidate (black box)
  • No fatal or critical bugs (i.e. no 'showstoppers')
  • "Going gold" or RTM
Prototypes/Builds may run parallel

Clear Box
Input -----------> Can see anything - current state, actions and commands ----------> Output
State (grey) Box
Input -----------> Can only see the current state (e.g. download bars) -------> Output
Black Box
Input -----------> Cannot see anything happening ---------> Output

1. Write a summary of all the different kinds of prototypes / milestones.

Concept prototypes have limited functionality and do not mimic appearance.
Visual prototypes focus on designs and aesthetics, and don't work.
Functional prototypes are build on a small-scale, and focus on how well functions are handled.

Alpha builds test for functionality.
Beta builds are feature complete and test for usability on a large scale.
Release candidates contain no fatal bugs and should be at, or close to, a standard of RTM.

2. Respond to each of the scenarios by (a) discussing the relevant issues and (b) proposing appropriate strategies for obtaining ongoing feedback from the system's users.

28/10/10 - Rival Schools on SD

posted Oct 27, 2010, 2:31 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Nov 9, 2010, 2:57 AM ]

Waterfall (most in common with SDLC)

  • Concrete beginning and end
  • Sequential
Rationale: Detailed planning at beginning will save time, money and effort later on. A rigid timeline will ensure that the project is completed on schedule.

Most suitable scenario: The presence of a due date

  • Develop successive working versions that learn from discoveries and mistakes of earlier versions
Successive - one after another (replaced)
Working - has to function
Versions - prototypes, iterations, builds, milestones
  • Increases progressively in scope, budget

  • Accelerated delivery to respond to user feedback
  • Prefers response/adaption over a rigid structure
  • Values close collaboration with final users of system all the way through development
Rationale: Allows for backtracking and provides client with opportunity for feedback

Problems that may arise: User feedback presents itself as competing or a waste of time, pestering of client

Describe the Waterfall, Spiral and Agile methodologies.

The Waterfall method has a concrete beginning and end, and is sequential. Detailing planning at beginning will save time, more $ and effort later on. A rigid timeline will ensure that the project is completed on schedule.
The Spiral method develops successive working versions that learn from discoveries and earlier mistakes of earlier versions. It eventually increases in scope and budget.
The Agile method is the accelerated delivery of versions to allow for response to user feedback. It prefers response/adaptation over a rigid structure. It values close collaboration with final users of the system all the way through development.

Explain the key benefits and disadvantages associated with each one, making sure to show how each benefit and disadvantage is caused directly by the specific principles of each methodology.

Advantages: Detailed planning at beginning will save time, money and effort later on. A rigid timeline will ensure that the project is completed on schedule.
Disadvantages: Not flexible
Advantages: Working versions continually developed for showcase
Disadvantages: $ may be spent on insignificant versions/improvements
Advantages: Accelerated delivery, close collaboration with final users of system all the way through development
Disadvantages: Makes clients grumpy
Research the following scenarios and then select a methodology that you think suits the development of the relevant system. With close reference to the unique characteristics of each situation, justify your choice.
Google implements its Google Instant search system.


The aim of the Google Instant search system to ensure the search time of the user is reduced. Until users actually trial the systems, the effectiveness of the developed system cannot be gauged. Whilst in development, any user feedback can be collected and implemented faster and with less cost, given its close collaboration with users.  
Apple releases the iPhone 4.


The iPhone 4, one of the major products of Apple, would require a fairly rigid timeline to ensure that a due date is met for release. Given that iPhone 4 is very much a piece of hardware, once it is delivered to clients - there would be no chance to fix problems or respond to user feedback,
Microsoft publishes Windows 7.
The development of successive working versions allows the flexibility to add additional features, whilst keeping to a timeline. The ability to constantly re-design programs is important given the inter-reliance of features in an operating system.

News post link

21/10/10 - Communications MP

posted Oct 20, 2010, 8:46 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Nov 5, 2010, 5:52 PM ]

A communications management plan facilitates effective communication both in and outside the team.

Things to Consider

  • Medium
Email, telephone, VOIP, Skype, Facebook, IM, forum, pager, fax, face-to-face, letter (post)
  • Line - so that each group knows who to contact when answers to questions are required
  • Progress updates
    • Scheduling meetings - include the purpose/who should attend
    • Noticeboard
    • Bulletin
    • Memos
  • Changing/emerging requirements & circumstances
Describe the four features of a comprehensive communications management plan.
  • Medium
  • Lines
  • Progress update
  • Changing/emerging requirements & circumstances
(a) Identify as many different types of medium that would be suitable for professional communications between project team members and clients.
  • E-mail
  • Telephone
  • Face-to-Face
  • Fax
  • Pager
(b) Select two of the types from part (a) and contrast them with reference to their unique strengths and weaknesses. Describe scenarios where each one would be particularly appropriate or useful.
  • Face-to-Face
  • Forum
Face-to-Face is more personal and body language, tone etc. can be communicated, making misinterpretation less likely. However, it is more time consuming.
The use a forum does not require meeting physically and saves time. However, clarity may not always be achieved. 
Explain why explicit lines of communication should be specified in the context of a information system development project that is being developed for a client business.
  • Reduced confusion
  • Not wasting time
  • Relevant people are contacted
Outline a communications management plan for a web design firm whose project is to completely remake the JRAHS public website.


  • E-mail
  • Face-To-Face

Team members - Respective task group leader - Project coordinator - Client (JRAHS)

Progress updates
  • Scheduled meetings
  • Noticeboard
Changing/emerging requirements & circumstances

Allowing client (JRAHS) to contact design firm regarding:
  • Upcoming dates/events that have yet to be finalised
  • New content (e.g. newly created co-curricular group)
  • New ideas (e.g. a dedicated page for each year group)

News post link

21/10/10 - Funding Management Plan

posted Oct 20, 2010, 2:25 PM by Unknown user   [ updated Nov 5, 2010, 3:01 AM ]

A funding management plan ensures that project is completed within budget (N.B. Time is $)
  1. Fund allocation - what to spend on/how much?
  2. Method of fund distribution, e.g. piecemeal, pre-payment, post-payment (ensures quality), deposit (combination of 2 or more) 
  3. Protective measures for guarding expenditure, e.g. forms, approval from management/executives, application for quotes
  4. Regular checks to monitor spending and maintain accountability
  5. Procedures for fund re-allocation
Identify the principal goal of a funding management plan.
The principal goal of a funding management plan is to ensure the project is completed within budget.
Describe the factors that may influence fund allocation.
  • Priority of tasks
  • Cost of manpower
  • Cost of materials
List alternatives for how fund distribution may occur.
  • Substantial deposit with piecemeal
  • Piecemeal with substantial post-payment
Identify three protective measures and explain how each can ensure that expenditure is sensible.
  • Approval by management/executives
  • Forms
  • Multiple applications for quotes
Justify the need for accountability within a project.
Accountability within a project ensures cash flow is monitored, and spending can be traced.
Describe potential scenarios that may necessitate fund re-allocation.
  • Extended deadline
  • Change in cost of manpower
  • Change in cost of materials
Construct a funding management plan for a project to build and maintain a school gymnasium.
  • Fund allocation - financial advisers, construction companies
  • Method of fund distribution - full pre-payment
  • Protective measures for guarding expenditure - approval by DET, P&C, building committee  
  • Regular checks - audits
  • Procedures for fund re-allocation - change in cost of cement, labour

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